**Title:** Introduction to Photonics

**Credits:** 4

**Coordinator:** Lih Y. Lin, Professor, Electrical and Computer Engineering

**Goals: **To acquaint students with vocabulary, major principles and phenomena of modern optics and photonic devices.

**Learning Objectives:** At the end of this course, students will be able to:

*Explain*major concepts of electromagnetic theory.*Describe*light propagation in free space and materials.*Derive and explain*equations for interference and diffraction phenomena.*Apply*polarization to treatment of light.*Perform*analysis of optical resonators and waveguiding structures.*Describe*the concept of photons and optical amplification.*Describe and design*various lasers.

**Textbook:**

F. L. Pedrotti, L. S. Pedrotti, and L. M. Pedrotti, *Introduction to Optics, 3 ^{rd} Ed*.,
Cambridge University Press, 2017.

**Reference Texts:**

- Jia-Ming Liu,
*Principles of Photonics, 2*Cambridge University Press, 2016.^{nd}Ed., - B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich,
*Fundamentals of Photonics*, John Wiley & Sons, 1991. - J. T. Verdeyen,
*Laser Electronics, 3*., Prentice Hall, 1995.^{rd}Ed

**Prerequisites by Topic:**

- Basic principles of electromagnetism (PHYS-123, EE-361, or equivalent)
- Complex numbers and functions
- Introductory differential and integral calculus, linear differential equations

**Topics:**

**Geometrical optics:**Reflection, refraction, total internal reflection, applications in optical fibers.**Electromagnetic theory of light:**Optical wave functions, wave equations, Maxwell's equations in various media, energy flow and absorption.**Polarization:**Jones vectors and Jones matrices, Fresnel equations, polarization devices.**Interference:**Principle of superposition and interference, two-beam interference and interferometry, multi-wave interference, Fabry-Perot interferometer, group/phase velocity and dispersion.**Diffraction:**Fraunhofer diffraction, Fresnel diffraction, diffraction gratings.**Photon and optical transitions:**Photon optics, optical transition rates absorption and emission.**Optical amplification and laser:**Basic steady-state population, optical gain, steady-state operation, oscillation laser modes, laser power characteristics, Gaussian beam propagation.

**Course Structure:** Class meets for two lectures a week, each consisting of a 100 minute session with a
10 minute break in between. Homework is assigned for each topic. There is a midterm exam and a final exam or a
final project.

**Computer Resources:** Mathematical programming software such as Matlab, Mathcad, or
Mathematica will be useful for some of the homework problems and final project.

**Laboratory Resources:** Not required.

**Grading:** Homework (25%), Midterm exam (40%), Final exam or final project (30%), Class participation (5%).

**ABET Student Outcome Coverage:** This course addresses the following outcomes:

H = high relevance, M = medium relevance, L = low relevance to course.

(1) *An ability to identify, formulate, and solve complex engineering problems by applying principles
of engineering, science, and mathematics.* **(H)** The course applies knowledge of physics and mathematics to
description and analysis of optical phenomena, devices and systems. Electromagnetic theory and optics formalisms are
used throughout the course.

(5) *An ability to function effectively on a team whose members together provide leadership, create a
collaborative and inclusive environment, establish goals, plan tasks, and meet objectives.* **(L)**
The final project may require working as teams and collaboratively achieving the design goals.

(7) *An ability to acquire and apply new knowledge as needed, using appropriate learning strategies.* **(M)**
To solve problems in photonics requires the ability to acquire and apply new knowledge, tools and learning strategies
in engineering, physics and math.

**Preparer:** Lih Y. Lin

**Last Revised:** March 4, 2019